Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Shiva was the city planner of Mohenjodoro

Shiva was the city planner of Mohenjo doro

Excalibur Stevens Biswas

Friends,I have navigated and decoded the Mohenjodoro map and which presents Shiva as city planner,navigator of the harbour city and the saviour of the river centric urban civilisation which controlled the global business at the time.Shiva is impersonal status personified and it has nothing to do with religion whatsoever.

It is beyond doubt that Shiva was not Aryan.The hindu myth about Daksha Yagya confirms that.Dr BR Ambedkar has blasted the riddles of hinduism which exposes the manipulation of history all on name of holy religious script.Everything false is made religious so no one may  dare to challenge the untruth most brute,These absolute myths created the base of the Manusmriti monopolistic economic order.

The real fact is Shiva is not a sacred god as the Sky Map of Mohenjo doro has proved.Mohenjo doro was a harbour and centre of global business at the time.Shiva was a navigator as well as city planner.and it was impersonal. It was  a status. I have decoded the sky map  and you may see it with this article.At the same time,there were different Shivas in different role as personified status in indus valley power structure which was destroyed by Indra.We have to keep in mind that Indus valeey civilisation is basically urban business civilisation and Indus was the lifeline.Shiva maintained this lifelive.It is not a matter of religion.It is pure scientific and technical system of our ancestors.Pl see the map, which navigates the different locations of Mohenjodoro and its location in the galaxy.

Most interestingly,the only Hindu nation on this earth,Nepal worships the Non Aryan Mohenjo doro God, Pashupati.

The Tripuri tribal community in Tripura also does worship the Non aryan shiva,Shibri!

It is also clear that Kali was also not Aryan as the Satipeetha  myth has been created to divest Kali in Aryan goddess Chandi.The husband wife story is quite baseless which is the central theme of all the manmade Sati Peethas where different aborigin totems personified were made different forms of Chandi accompanied by one or another Bhairav.

Rudra is Vedic god. Racially Shiva as well as Kali represent negroid non aryans.Siva admittedly is a non-vedic god nor there is a direct mention of Siva in the Rig ... V-3) whom Indra defeated, is Siva who is the chief god inimical to the Aryans.Early Vedic god Rudra (storm god) is not exactly what we conceive of Siva. ... at the beginning that Lord Siva is originally a non-Aryan god.

As Indra was Aryan war lord to whom almost all vedic hymns have been dedicated.Studies prove that Shiva was a non aryan king who fought the Aryans. Aryans did co opted him in its god circle to defeat the Non Aryan culture.Similarly, all indigenous gods and goddesses made Aryan.

Shiva evolved over a period of time by the merging the elements of a pre-Aryan or a non-Aryan fertility deity with Rudra, a fierce god of the Vedic (Aryan) period. This pre-Aryan is nothing but Dravidian as has been established by anthropologists and historians who delved into pre-historic evidences. According to these scholars the proto-Dravidians introduced a Neolithic village culture based on agriculture or hunting in Baluchistan and Sind, and this enriched and incorporated elements of the Mesolithic culture evidenced about 5000 BC by the earliest known paintings in rock shelters of bison, elephant and buffalo, as far a field as Adamgarh in central India and Badami in the southern Deccan. The so-called Indus Valley civilization which developed form this stretched from Afghanistan to beyond present Delhi and from Makeran coast of Baluchistan far down into Gujarat. Great cities such as Mohanjo-daro and Harappa and Kalibangan rose during the 3rd millennium BC.

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Brief History Of Lord Shiva

The worship of Shiva is a pan-Hindu tradition, practiced widely across all of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Some historians believe that the figure of Shiva as we know him today was built up over time, with the ideas of many regional sects being amalgamated into a single figure. As to the evolution of the concept of Shiva, writes Dr. Sailen Debnath, "The evolution of the concept of Shiva is the most fascinating one and Shiva's place is unique among the Hindu pantheon. It is only Shiva again whose origin can be traced in the pre-Aryan period and whose worship pervaded to all nooks and corners of India, North and South equally. Shiva thus had non-Aryan origin and Aryan manifestations in different promiscuous forms including that of the Vedic Rudra (the power of destruction) though the original meaning has not yet been lost. Most probably the authors of the Indus Valley Civilization had the credit of developing the concept of Shiva as the source of all things in their known universe. The idea of Shiva had been associated with the flourishing of the Harappan culture; and significantly the name of the place was also after another name of Shiva, i.e. 'Hara' (Shiva) and 'appa' (papa or father) and jointly Harappa (Father Shiva).Among the seals excavated in the sites of the civilization the figure of Shiva augur prominently. It's a matter of interest that even afterwards the culture too has been named "Harappan culture" by the historians trying to write its history. Thus in Shiva we find the unity of pre-Aryan, Aryan and post-Aryan religious development and an evolution of synthesis. In the name of Shiva culturally India stands together." How the persona of Shiva converged as a composite deity is not well documented.


Shiva, like some other Hindu deities, is said to have several incarnations, known as Avatars. Although Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to avatars of Shiva, the idea is not universally accepted in Saivism.[163]

Virabhadra who was born when Shiva grabbed a lock of his matted hair and dashed it to the ground. Virabhadra then destroyed Daksha's yajna (fire sacrifice) and severed his head as per Shiva's instructions.

Bhairava, Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव, "Terrible" or "Frightful",, sometimes known as Bhairo or Bhairon or Bhairadya or Bheruji (In Rajasthan), is the fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. He is one of the most important deities of Rajasthan and Nepal, sacred to Hindus and Buddhists alike.When depicted as Kala Bhairava, Bhairava is shown carrying the decapitated head of Brahma.

Nataraja or Nataraj (Hindustani), The Lord (or King) of Dance in Barathanatyam; is a depiction of god Shiva as the cosmic dancer Koothan who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for god Brahma to start the process of creation. A Tamil concept, Shiva was first depicted as Nataraja in the famous Chola bronzes and sculptures of Chidambaram. The dance of Shiva in Tillai, the traditional name for Chidambaram, forms the motif for all the depictions of Shiva as Nataraja. He is also known as "Sabesan" which splits as "Sabayil aadum eesan" in Tamil which means "The Lord who dances on the dais". The form is present in most Shiva temples in South India, and is the main deity in the famous temple at Chidambaram.

Durvasa (दुर्वास in Devanagari or durvāsa in IAST, pronounced in classical Sanskrit), or Durvasas, was an ancient sage, the son of Atri and Anasuya. He is supposed to be an incarnation of Shiva. He is known for his short temper. Hence, wherever he went, he was received with great reverence from humans and Devas alike.

Khandoba, a form of Shiva, mainly in the Deccan plateau of India, especially in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. He is the most popular family deity in Maharashtra.

Sharabha, Shaiva scriptures narrate that god Shiva assumed the Avatar (incarnation) of Sharabha to tame Narasimha - the fierce man-lion avatar of Vishnu worshipped by Vaishnava sect - into a normal pleasant form representing harmony. This form is popularly known as Sarabeshwara ("Lord Sarabha") or Sharabeshwaramurti. In Buddhism, Sharabha appears in Jataka Tales as a previous birth of the Buddha.

Adi Shankara, the 8th-century philosopher of non-dualist Vedanta"Advaita Vedanta", was named "Shankara" after Lord Shiva and is considered by some to have been an incarnation of Shiva.

In the Hanuman Chalisa, Hanuman is identified as the eleventh avatar of Shiva, but this belief is not universal.

It is believed that the Sai Baba of Shirdi, Maharashtra and Satya Sai Baba of Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh are the modern avatars of Lord Shiva.

In Dasam Granth, second scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned two Rudra Avtars:

Dattatreya Avtar - The great Yogi who made 22 Gurus from whom he understand the depth of Dhyana.

Paras Nath Avtar - The great King who conquered all world but later got Ego which was broken by Matsyendranath. This chapter contain detail fight with intuitive mind and unintuitive mind

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  1. Mohenjo-daro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


  3. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. When the Indus civilization went into ...

  4. Images for mohenjo-daro civilization town planning

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  6. Indus Valley - Town Planning - Library


  8. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization had achieved some spectacular ... religious structures, granaries and in the case of Mohenjo-Daro the famous Great ...

  9. Mohenjo Daro: Ancient City of the Indus Valley Civilization


  11. Sep 17, 2007 - Mohenjo Daro: Ancient City of the Indus Valley Civilization. From TOWN PLAN Mohenjo-daro, is an ancient planned city ...

  12. Indus Valley Civilization موئن جو دڙو, (Mohenjo-daro) Animated ...► 4:32► 4:32


  14. Oct 10, 2011 - Uploaded by chacharzac

  15. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along ... the major urban centers of ...

  16. Harappan Town Planning (Article) -- Ancient History Encyclopedia


  18. Jul 29, 2012 - The various features of the Harappan town Planning is given below: Granaries: The granary was the largest structure in Mohenjodaro, in Harappa there were about six granaries or ... Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization.

  19. Indus valley civilization  harappa - SlideShare


  21. Dec 16, 2012 - Ancient Urban City Planning 1169 views Like. Indus civilization 2179 views Like. Mohenjo daro harappa early history 8705 views Like.

  22. Town Planning skills of Ancient Indians: Mohenjadaro & Harappan ...


  24. Feb 13, 2010 - Due to its elaborate town plan, Mohenjo-daro was considered a cosmopolitan city, the capital of the civilization with people of different races ...

  25. More about the Lower Town. - Indus Valley


  27. A plan of Mohenjo-daro. The avenues divide the Lower Town into many blocks. Alleyways and lanes further divided these blocks. Judging by the size of the ...

  28. Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro - World Heritage Site - Pictures ...


  30. The Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (or Mohenjo-daro) are the remains of ... of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. ... made a stopof one day in Mohenjo-Daro to observe the ruins of a civilization ...

  31. Mohen Jo daro


  33. The recent survey into civilization suggests that Mohen-jo-daro civilization is ...societies to any extent until the 19th century and also urban planning has still not ...

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The Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (or Mohenjo-daro) are the remains of one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Moenjodaro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning. The site was divided into two sections: the acropolis with the major structures, and the lower town with private houses and commercial buildings.

The ruins are located in Sindh Province, Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro is the modern name for the site, meaning 'Mound of the Dead'.

The city was built around 2600 BC, and was abandoned around 1700 BC. It was rediscovered in 1922. Currently, the site is threatened by salinity in the ground water and improper restoration.



Jorge Sanchez (Spain):

I did not like Karachi, the most populated city in Pakistan, I found it too crowded and with beggars everywhere who followed me, when they saw giving baksheesh to some children without legs, realizing that I was a Westerner, with the goal to get some rupees, but I could not give coins to everybody. Furthermore, my first day in that town two corrupted Policemen tried to rob me (fortunately without success), that was the reason why the second day of my stay I headed north, to Rawalpindi and then to the Himalaya.

I boarded a train and made a stopof one day in Mohenjo-Daro to observe the ruins of a civilization on the banks of the Indo River that prospered over 4000 years ago, at the same time than Greece and Egypt.

Mohenjo-Daro is in the list of Patrimonies if the Humankind by UNESCO.

Walking around the archeological site, among the ruins, I noticed a Buddhist Stupa, situated on the top of a hill.

In my way to Rawalpindi I could have stopped in Harappa, in Punjab, a settlement contemporary of Mohenjo-Daro, which represents another civilization centre. But not being an archeologist, I felt satisfied enough with my visit to Mohenjo-Daro to have an idea of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Finally I reached by train the city of Rawalpindi.

Date posted: July 2013

Majid Abbasi (Pakistan):

Hi Majid Abbasi im living in larkana city and when i was visit Moen Jo Daro i thinked that the culture of Moen jo daro is one of the best culture in all over the world in antiant times this civilization is more antiant in the history on historical places its about 2600 B.C

i had visited this place about 5 to 6 times but when i see there work which done by people of Moen jo Daro i think that if they are present nowadays im sure they will be the best and most powerfull people in the world in this time means

Sindh is the Father of All countries.

Some times im thinking that im one from them i dont know for what im thinking that but its true,and im always try to understand their language becouse their language help us to know more about them but there language is mystry till today if we will understand there language than will will get the Moen jo Daro origenality

Thank my view about Moen Jo Daro are above.

Date posted: June 2008


it is one of oldand managed city pakistani govt has to pay atension on it


i visited twice moenjodaro in 1994 and 2001.It is remakable place and sindhis are proud of it that how we were civilized 2500 BC ago it gave me more pleasure when i visted calgary, canada science centre,there i went through some reading on walls"people of moenjodaro had a well organised and modern drainage system in ancient times none of other civilization had.


Hello/Bonjour/Bhaley karey Aayaa!!I am khalil and I belong to Larkana SIndh Pakistan.Moen Jo Daro is about 22 KM away from my native city.It is one of finest remains of the world and proof of the human greatness and history we all are proud of.It is window to our glorious past and hope for shining future.Mohenjo-daro is a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, with structures constructed of bricks of baked mud, sun dried bricks and burned wood. At its height the city probably had around 35,000 residents. It had an advanced drainage system, a variety of buildings up to two stories high and an elaborate bath area. The bath area was very well built and had a layer of natural tar, to keep it from leaking, in center they had swimming pool. Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, granary, and central marketplace.

It also had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing.

The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.

I always get inspiration,visiting Moen jo daro but it is really heartening to note that It is NOT better preserved,even due to rain the upper part of tomb is destroyed and Government of Pakistan nneds to do more to preserve it, many other part of moen-jo-daro city are under severe condition and not much focused on it, during this Eid-ul-fitar 2006 some of motor bicycle boys ride on walls of city and other sensitive part which on virtue being destroyed soon.

We all need to join our hands to preserve the remains and The language of the Indus Civilization has yet to be deciphered by collective research.

Long Live Moen Jo Daro! Long Live Glorious and PEACEFUL World!



MOEN JO DARO (The Mound Of dead) / MOHAN JO DARO not but only name MOHEN JO DARO .It is 5 thousand years old Historical and Cultural Metropolise Civilization in the world. Now this World Heritage Site destroying/down fall once an other . UNESCO and ohters Heritage and Donner Agencies stop their Projects for Archaeological conservation ,Tourism Rehibilitations .Because Tourism and culture Deptt: Govt of Pakistan did not coopperation with them. Neither he take action for Rehibilitation of Archaeology and conservation of Ruins of Mohen jo daro nor allow or cooppreation with UNSCO and other Cultural and Heritage Agencies . WHY

Sayed kashif (Pakistan):

I visited the Moen-jo-Daro last sunday with my classmates.when we reached at this sight,we felt happy and enjoyed more and more with my classmates.We saw every famous places and observed that there is something wrong which is cleaness at kafeteria.So,i requested you should take some steps to make cleaness at this famous histirical place.

Date posted: March 2006

Adeel Ahmed (Pakistan):

I did'nt go there ever.But as far as my knowledge is concerned.I have read hundreds of articles and watched different documentries about that ancient and well developed civilization of the subcontinent.I dreamt about it since I was a kid.But it is very shameful to know the fact that it was among those civilization who introduced the game of chess;furthermore,it exported cloth to ancient Egyptians through Indus river.Very few know about that.But this heritage of Pakistan is destroying.Do some thing;otherwise stop making people fool to tour that place.We are among those nations ,who don't deserve respect.Because we don't work hard.It is very sorry to say that we are damn lazy,we are too illetrate and we simply don't deserve something that special.

an aborigion of muhan's jo daro (pakistan):

when i went to visit muhan'n jo daro i saw its bad conditions in 2003 its real name is (muhan's jo daro) plse help to change and correct it's name.

maqsood ahmed (pakistan):

when i visited moen jo daro i felt very sorry because that is the major source of ancient civilization of the world .but there is not any security plan to save these ruins from the harm full effect of the weather so iam requesting the UNESCOplz do some thing for that and save it and also there is an other thing which can destroy it that is the people those come on EID DAY and they are destroying it .thanx

Amber Ejaz Alexander (Pakistan):

I visited the site with my college (Notre Dame Institute) and it was the most rememberable experience I had. Witnessing one of the most oldest archeological ruins was an experience words can not express. According to the time period the people seemed highly civilized and having enough knowledge of an orgnised urban structure. But there was no information provided to us about the medical facilities they used, neither any medical artifacts was seen in the museum. Allover not a place to be missed by tourist.

Peter Groot (Holland):

It was hot,dusty, and our guide didn't speak any English. So it were 2 lost days for us.

Luckely the motel was very nice!

Chapter 6

Draksharama is Buddhist

Draksharama is situated at a distance of 4 miles from Ramachandrapuram which is a taluk head-quarter in East Godavari district of Andhra... The place is very famous as a seat of a temple of Bhimeswaraswami [Ramesan N., Temples and Legends of Andhra, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p. 112] The epigraphy on the walls of the temples is perhaps the richest amongst all the temples of Andhra..." [Ibid. p.11]

Story of Daksha Prajapati

About the origin of name, Ramesan observes:

"The name Drakshrama is said to be a corrupted form of 'Daksha' 'arama' or the garden of Daksha-prajapathi..."

"...Daksha Arama or the modern Draksharama, is said to be the seat of this famous Yajna of Dakshaprajapathi, and in memory of it, even today, orthodox Brahmins do not perform any Yajna or such ceremonies, within the premises of Drakshrama. [Ibid. 113]

This seems to be far fetched. The word should means a garden of grapes. Be it as it may, the fact remains that word arama is a well known Buddhist word applied to abodes of Buddhist bhikshu.

As a matter of fact the story of yajna of Daksha Prajapati is told about many shrines all over the length and breadth of the country and not only about Draksharama. Also it has many versions. And hence there is nothing historical about it, but it denotes the trend of people of those times. Dr. Ambedkar gives details of story in many places. One version of the story is as follows: [Ambedkar: 1987: Riddles in Hinduism, vol.4,163]

"... Who is this Shiva whom the Brahmins adopted as their God in preference to Indra? The story of Daksha Prajapati's Yajna and the part played by Shiva throws great light on Shiva. The story is that somewhere in the Himalayas king Daksha was performing an Yajna. This Yajna was attended by all Devas, Danavas, Pishachas, Nagas, Rakshasas and Rishis. But Shiva absented as Daksha did not give him invitations. Dadhichi one of the Rishis scolded Daksha for his failure to invite Shiva and to perform his puja. Daksha refused to call Shiva and said "I have seen many of your Rudras. Go away, I don't recognize your Shiva." Dadhichi replied " You have all conspired against Shiva, take care, your Yajna will never reach a successful finis." Mahadeo coming to know of this created a Rakshas from his mouth and this Rakshas destroyed the Yajna started by Daksha. This shows that there was a time when Brahmins refused to recognize Shiva as the God to be worshipped or it shows that Shiva was against the Yajna system of the Brahmanas."

"The difference between the Aryans and the Non-Aryans was cultural and not racial. The cultural difference centred round two points. The Aryans believed in Chaturvarna. The Non-Aryans were opposed to it. The Aryans believed in the performance of Yajna as the essence of their religion. The Non-Aryans were opposed to Yajna. Examining the story of Daksha's Yajna in the light of these facts it is quite obvious that Shiva was a Non-Vedic and a Non-Aryan God. The question is why did the Brahmins, the pillars of Vedic culture, adopt Shiva as their God?"

Thus anti-Yajna and anti-chaturvarna spirit is shown by this story. As Saivism had already become a part of Hinduism by the time this centre came up, the association of this story with this place should be considered as an allusion of it being a Buddhist site, as Brahmins are known to shun the Buddhist places, and that may be the reason of origin of the legend of Daksha-Prajapathi.

This place is also sacred to Muslims.

Ramesan observes:

"...There is a tomb in Draksharama of a Muslim saint by name Saiyid Shah Bhaji Aulia with a mosque attached to it. This muslim saint is said to have lived 500 years ago. He was born according to tradition, at Gardex near Madina in Arabia, and came to Draksharama with his disciples during the course of his tours. Being hungry, they slaughtered the temple bull of a Saivite mutt at Drakshrama and ate it. In the dispute that ensued, the relative greatness of the saint and the local Saivite head of the mutt has called into question, and to settle the matter, a Sivalilngam was thrown into the pond, by name Lingala Cheruvu, and both the Muslim saint and the Saivite Mathadhipathi were asked to bring back the Linga by the power of their worship. The Muslim saint, it appears, prayed to the infinite Lord who is the same for all, irrespective of all difference, and the Lord being pleased with the depth of his devotion acceded to his request. The Muslim saint who won in the contest was then given the mutt to live in, and he converted it into a sacred mosque. The descendants of this saint are said to be still living in Draksharama". [Ibid. p118]

Miracles apart, the gist of the legend shows that the masses around the area supported the Muslim saint. As is well known, the supporters of these Muslim saints were people of lower castes, who of course, were originally Buddhists. Hence, it stands to reason that in olden times, the area was predominantly Buddhist.

Archaeological Evidence of it being a Buddhist Shrine

However, Ramesan gives what he calls 'a legend' in support of this. As a matter of fact, this is no mere legend but a statement of scientific, archaeological facts:

"The third legend about this temple is that the temple was originally a Buddha Chaitya and that during the course of revival of Hindu worship, it was converted into a Hindu temple. The Mula Virat or the Linga is said to be one of the Ayaka Stambhas of the original Buddha Chaitya. Chaityas or Stupas in Buddhists methods of worship, are mounds raised over the corporeal relics of Lord Buddha or a great Acharya. Buddhist Stupas and Chaityas are spread all over India, but one of the main characteristics of the Andhra type of Chaityas and Stupas is the existence of the five vertical pillars, called the Ayaka Stambhas, which are erected in the four cardinal directions viz. East, South, West and North. In all the Chaityas of Andhra, this is a peculiar characteristic which is found. These Ayaka Stambhas which are five in number, are said to represent the five major incidents in the life of Lord Buddha viz, Janana or Birth, Mahabhiniskramana or the great renunciation, Samyak-Sambhodi of the prefect realization. Dharma Chakra Pravarthana or the setting in motion of the wheel of Dharma, and Mahaparinirvana or the final absorption of Lord Buddha into the Infinite. The Ayaka Stambhas are generally vertical pillars made of white marble stone." [Ibid. p.114]

Amaravati and other centres converted

He further continues:

"Andhra Desa and especially the Krishna river basin has been a famous seat of Buddhism, and many stupas have been found in this valley as for example at Amaravathi, Goli, Jaggayyapeta, Gantasala etc., not to speak of the Mahachaitya at Nagarjunakonda. During the period of the revival of Hindu worship. For example, in the Garbha Griha of the Amareswara temple of Amravathi in Guntur district, there is a typical white marble lotus medallion slab of the Buddhist type. The peculiar characteristic Buddhist type of bricks are also found in the temple. It is therefore possible that the Buddhist Chaitya and the Ayaka Stambhas have been reconverted into a Hindu temple and adapted for linga worship. There is nothing irregular about this, since in whatever form one worships the Lord, the place still retains its greatness". [Ibid. p.114]

Without joining issues on the last statement, however, it might be pertinent to ask, whether it would be proper to worship the Lord Bhimeswaraswami by Trisaran and Pancha Sheela if a devotee so desires.

Very many shrines were Buddhist

It is also proper to quote another legend which gives correlation between various shrines:

"There is yet another popular legend about the origin of this temple. In this temple, Lord Shiva is worshipped in Lingakara. The shape of the Mula Virat, is a long cylindrical pillar some 20 or 25 feet high. The legend is, that these are parts of an original linga which broke off into 5 pieces and fell at five different places or Aramas viz. Bheemarama in West Godavari, Amararam of Amravati in Guntur, Daksharama or Draksharama in East Godavari and Kurmarama which is Lotipalli in East Godavari District..." [Ibid. p. 113]

This legend connects the various place. Some of them have been already shown to be Buddhist in origin. Because of this connections, it may be presumed that all these places were originally Buddhist.

Ayaka Stambhas were converted into Siva lingas

Dr. I. K. Sarma, while discussing various sites in Andhra Desa, observes:

"...The Mauryan conquest of coastal Andhra was, therefore, probably earlier to Asokan accession and the Religion of Buddha came to Andhra almost certainly in the pre-Mauryan age. It is of great importance that Asoka in his IVth pillar edict defines the duties of such rajukas in the administration. We have seen above how Amravati - Dharanikota grew with a Buddhist base right from a Pre- Mauryan period. This very place came to be regarded as an aramaksetra with the Amareswara Linga as the presiding deity of the Sthala. The toponym Amaravati itself is regarded as a corrupt from of "Aramavati". It is not without significance that the long east coast covered by Godavari- Krishna deltas, located mid-way between the Magadha (the home of Buddhism) and Ceylon (the strong-hold of Buddhism) developed aramakshetras. We have known at least five such aramas. These are Draksharma and Kurmarama, both in East Godavari district; Somarama and Ksirarama, in west Godavari district andAmararama in Guntur district. In each of these places a vast temple complex for Siva was raised by Bhima-I (812-921 A.D.) the Eastern Chalulkyan monarch. An unusually tall Linga was consecrated in the Sanctum which is double storied Sarvatobhadrika shrine. Several angalyas, tall prakara walls with dalans were added by the successive rulers. An examination of such a Linga within the Amaresavra temple, Amaravati itself has revealed that the upper most part of the Linga, which is nearly six meter high, has a square mortise hole although rounded off and in the remaining four places too (also Adikesvara temple, Chebrolu Guntur district, the Linga within the main sanctum was similarly tall and of Palnad lime stone. There is no doubt that a Buddhist pillar (ayaka or mandapa Khambha) was shaped to a linga in all these cases." [Sarma: 1988: 9]

Affinity of Magadha towards coastal Andhra

He further observes:

"...We may now recall to mind certain important Aramas of Buddhist fame. Veluvanarama and Jivakarama (Rajagruha); Ambapalivanaarama (Vaisali), Jetavanarama(Sravasti), Goshitarama, Kukkutarama and Pavarr-arama (Kausambi) etc. All these belong to rich merchants. They were famed right from Buddha's time and nurtured the growth of Buddhism. At the Amaravati Mahacaitya a unique sculptured Steele depicted these aramas with full architectural detail and each frame ... was duly labeled also in early Brahmi characters of 3rd century B.C. No where else in Buddhist art we have such well dated sculptured scenes. All these facts emphasize the close affinity and the firm hold of the Magadhan Buddhism on the coastal Andhradesa with Amaravati- Dharanikota as its nucleus." [Sarma: 1988: 10]

Miscellaneous aspects  

of the Aryan invasion debate


4.7.1. Indra stands accused

A central Vedic myth is the killing of the dragon or snake, Vrtra, by the Vedic thunder god Indra.  Here is a beautiful occasion to demonize Vedic religion to its core, considering that �the duel between Indra and Vrtra, officially the symbol of the eternal fight between good and evil, is the central element of the Vedic sacrificial rite.�58 For Dravidianist agitators and other anti-Brahmin writers, the central Vedic myth of the dragon-slayer is but an allegorical report of the Aryan invasion and defeat of the pre-Aryan natives, a commemoration of an ancient crime against humanity.59

In reality, the slaying of the dragon is a pan-IE myth, attested even in the remote Germanic tradition, where it was later christianized into Saint George�s and Archangel Michael�s dragon-slayings.  In Iranian this dragon-slayer is actually called Verethraghna, a form eroded in Armenian to Veragn(remark that while the rejection of Indra was a central concern of Zarathushtra, Indra�s epithetVerethraghna remained as a separate deity in the Avesta).  Obviously, the Iranians and Armenians did riot have a history of conquering North-India from the Harappans, as per the AIT itself, so we may safely assume that the Vrtra myth has nothing to do with an Aryan-Harappan war.

Nor is there any evidence that there ever was any war between Aryans and Harappans in the first place.  No large-scale destruction of Harappan cities has been noticed.  Contrast this with the IE expansion in the Balkans.  From linguistic evidence, we understand that the Hellenes (Greeks) along with the Illyrians and Thracians supplanted or absorbed a highly civilized non-IE native population, whose culture is known as the VinCa culture (after its richest excavation site near Belgrade).  These natives had used an as yet undeciphered writing system reportedly going back to 5300 BC, and disappearing along with the Old European culture in about 3500 BC.  So there it really was an advanced civilization being overrun by barbarian invaders who largely destroyed it.

That model is being projected onto the Vedic-Harappan history: a literate urban and agricultural civilization being overrun by semi-nomadic horsemen.  But the crucial difference is that in the Balkans, this violent scenario is attested by archaeological findings: �The existence of archaeologically attested burnt layers at many settlements is evidence for military confrontations between the native farmers of Southeast Europe and the cattle-breeding nomads from South Russia.�60 The same thing happened when, according to most specialists, the Greeks entered mainland Greece in 1,900 BC, driving the last remains of Old European culture to their last refuge on Crete: �numerous destructions�, �widespread destruction on the mainland, but no destruction on Crete or the islands�.61 This testimony of many settlements having been burnt down is absent at the Harappan sites.

All the same, a whole superstructure of invasionist readings of Indian symbols and mythology has been erected on the invasionist suspicion that, in Sir Mortimer Wheeler�s famous words, �Indra stands accused� of destroying the Harappan civilization.

4.7.2. Continuity between Indra and Shiva

Once Indra had been identified by the AIT as a deified tribal leader of the invaders, an antagonism was elaborated between the �Aryan� sky-god Indra and the �pre-Aryan� fertility god Shiva; Indra being the winner of the initial military confrontation, but Shiva having the last laugh by gradually winning over the conquerors to the cult of the subdued natives.  As I heard a Catholic priest from Kerala claim, �Shiva is not a Hindu god, because he is the god of the pre-Aryans.�

That Shiva was the god of the Harappans, is based on a single Harappan finding, the so-calledPashupati seal. It depicts a man with a strange headwear sitting in lotus posture and surrounded by animals.  Though not well visible, he seems to have three faces, which may mean that he is a three-faced god (like the famous three-faced Shiva sculpture in the Elephanta cave), or that he is a four-faced god with the back face undepictable on a two-dimensional surface.  The common speculation is that this is Shiva in his Pashupati (�lord of beasts�) aspect.  Ever since the discovery of the Gundestrup cauldron in Central Europe, which depicts the Celtic horned god Cernunnos similarly seated between animals, this Pashupati seal is actually an argument in favour of the IE character of Harappan culture.

Let us, nevertheless, go with the common opinion: Shiva for the Harappans, Indra for the Aryans.  Those who see it this way have never explained why the dominant Aryans have, over the centuries, abandoned their victorious god (Indra is practically not worshipped in any of the temples manned by Brahminical priests) in favour of the god of their defeated enemies.  At any rate, when we study these two divine characters, we find that they are not all that antagonistic.

Shiva is usually identified with the Vedic god Rudra.  It so happens that Indra�s and Rudra�s domains are more or less the same: both are thundering sky gods.  In mythology, Indra is, like Shiva, a bit of an outsider, who is in conflict with the other gods, shunned by them (and even by his mother), left alone by them to fight the Dragon, doing things that disrupt the world order.  Christians who picture Jesus as the friend of the outcasts, may like to know that the despised �Aryan racist god� Indra is in fact on the side of the outcasts: �Indra, you lifted up the outcast who was oppressed, you glorified the blind and the lame.� (Rg-Veda 2:13:12) As David Frawley has shown, Indra has many epithets and attributes which were later associated with Shiva: the dispeller of fear, the lord of mAyA(enchantment), the bull, the dancer, the destroyer of cities (Indra purandara, Shiva tripurahara).62 Both are associated with mountains, rivers, male fertility, fierceness, fearlessness, warfare, transgression of established mores, the Aum sound, the Supreme Self.

Shiva and Indra are both associated with intoxication. Indra is praised as having a tremendous appetite for the psychedelic soma juice.  Shiva has Soma-Shiva as one of his aspects, a name containing one of those Brahminical etymology games: Soma is the Vedic intoxicant, and also the moon (as in SomwAr, �Monday�), which is part of Shiva�s iconography (hence his, epithetSomanAtha).

The now-popular theory that Shiva is a non-Vedic and anti-Vedic god, is partly based on the Puranic story of the destruction of Daksha�s sacrifice.  Daksha is the father of Shiva�s beloved Sati: he rebukes Shiva, Sati commits suicide, and Shiva vents his anger by disturbing the sacrifice which Daksha is conducting.  Daksha refuses to worship Shiva because Shiva is vedabAhya, �outside the Vedas�; as in a fit of anger, mortals also call their relatives all kinds of inaccurate names.

As David Frawley shows, the Daksha story is quite parallel to the Vedic story of Indra stealing thesoma from Twashtr and even killing the latter, and to the Vedic story of Rudra killing Prajapati.  In each case, a god who disrupts or �destroys� the world order, is seen to defeat a god representing the process of creation, which is equated with the process of the Vedic sacrifice (the Creator creates the world by sacrificing).  The destroyer-god, himself a cornerstone of the created world, disrupts the creative sacrifice.  David Frawley restores these stories to their traditional metaphysical interpretation: �Both Indra�s and Shiva�s role of destroying Prajapati or his son relate to their role as eternity (absolute time) destroying time or the year (relative time) represented by Prajapati and the sacrifice.�63 Personally, I prefer the more physical explanation given by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and in consonance with modem insights into mythology, viz. that the victory of the one god over the other may simply refer to the replacement of one constellation by the next as the stellar location of the equinox.

The outsider role of Shiva in the Puranic pantheon is the continuation of Indra�s role in the Vedic pantheon, which in turn is only the Indian version of a role which exists in the other IE pantheons as well, e.g. the Germanic fire god Loki or the Greco-Roman warrior-god Ares/Mars.  Shiva also continues Indra�s role of warrior-god.  Till today, many Shiva sadhus are proficient in the martial arts.  The Shaiva war-cry Hara Hara Mahadev is still used by some regiments of the Indian army as well as by Hindu demonstrators during communal confrontations.64

Finally, shiva, �the auspicious one�, is an epithet of not only Rudra but of Vedic gods in general.  Indra himself is called shiva several times (Rg-Veda 2:20:3, 6:45:17, 8:93:3).  Shiva is by no means a non-Vedic god, and Indra never really disappeared from popular Hinduism but lives on under another name.


  1. 58André. Van Lysebeth: Tantra, p.25.

  2. 59A very elaborate interpretation of the whole Rg-Veda as a report on the destruction of the Harappan �Asura Empire� by the Aryan invaders is Malati Shendge: The Civilized Demons. The Harappans in Rg-Veda.

  3. 60Harald Haarmann: Universalgeschichte der Schrift, p.80.

  4. 61William F. Wyatt, jr.: �The Indo-Europeanization of Greece�, in Cardona et al., eds.: Indo-European and Indo-Europeans, p.89-111, specifically p-93.

  5. 62D. Frawley: Gods, Sages and Kings, p.224-225, and in more detail: Arise Arjuna, p. 170-181.

  6. 63D. Frawley: Arise Arjuna, p. 177.  The symbolism of eternity and time is very clear in the iconography of Shiva�s consort KAli.  Representing all-devouring time, she dances on Shiva�s unconscious body: the world of change and destruction exists and affects us as long as the timeless self-consciousness of the Self has not awoken.

  7. 64In the Chanakya TV-serial, broadcast in truncated version on Doordarshan in 1992, the Hara Hara Mahadev sequences were censored out for fear that they might arouse communal passions.

Caste Revolutions of Yesteryear: Lord ShivaIn 1886, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee presented Krishna as a historical hero in order to create an upper-caste Hindu (anti-Muslim) nationalism. In 1959, Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkarpresented Shiva as a historical figure in order to end (global) Aryan arrogance and establish universal humanism. According to Shrii Sarkar (in his seminal discourse "Tantra and Indo-Aryan Civilization"), Lord Shiva was born, 7500 years ago in a non-Aryan community to a Tibetan mother and an Aryan father. Throughout South Asia, countless adivasis and low-caste communities worship Shiva, and some of them practice Tantra, as researchers like Sharad Patil have pointed out. Shiva lived during the beginning of the Aryan onslaught in which the peaceful Austric, Dravidian (Austric mixed with African) and Oriental communities lived. Shrii Sarkar presents the Aryans as brutal, materialistic warriors with no spirituality or culture. The non-Aryans are presented as simple, sublime people who lived in peace with each other and who were intellectually developed and established in Tantra sadhana. It is only after coming in contact with the indigenous Indians that the Aryans learned non-Aryan Tantra and renamed it as yoga. It was only after coming in contact with Tantric philosophy that some of the Aryan ksattriyas (warriors) and sages in the forest began to develop the Upanishads.

First and foremost, Shiva created a spiritual revolution that transformed various indigenous people, ground down by Aryan Green Hunts, into revolutionaries. His Tantra sadhana gave these indigenous Indians real spiritual shakti (as is admitted in Puranic propaganda). This shakti transformed prehistoricpasus (animals) into viiras (heroes). The creation of a new humanity, a new divinity, in the prehistoric past still reverberates today. Shiva's followers, called ganas (though despised by Aryans as dark untouchables), became recognized as the first genuine human beings. Even today, the word gana is used in many Indian languages to signify the authentic people of India.

Second, Shiva was able to create a military revolution. He was the first and last person who was able to unite all tribes and all races, into a unified force to fight the Aryans. He was then able to create a genuine peace by marrying the three wives: Aryan Parvati, Dravidian Kali and Oriental Ganga. Third, Shiva was able to create a social revolution by creating a new society based on sama samaja and not on the racism of the Aryans or the tribalism of the non-Aryans. As Shrii Sarkar said,

Those who believe in casteism in fact go against the fundamental principle of the Universal Family. One and the same Creator is the Universal Progenitor, so where is the scope for caste discrimination? All are brothers and sisters, with equal dignity. This is the principle of equality, as enunciated by Lord Shiva. You are not inferior to, nor insignificant by comparison to, anyone; nor are you superior to or more important than others. You must not have any defeatist complex in your mind. When the all-powerful and all-knowing Supreme Entity is your guide, who can defeat you? Even if this creation falls into complete dissolution, the Supreme Consciousness will remain with you. He will save you from utter annihilation. So under no circumstances should you indulge in a defeatist complex. This is the advice of Lord Shiva."

- "Tandava, Shastra, and the Teachings of Shiva", Discourses on Tantra Vol. 2

Shiva founded the first cosmopolitan city of Kashi in the East, far away from the Aryans, in order to establish this sama samaja. The conquest of Lord Shiva's city by the racist Aryans is perhaps one of the greatest tragedies of Indian history.

Historical Background of Lord Shiva.

Posted on February 3, 2010by Sastha

Quotes from the original discourses of Namah Shiváya Shántáya by Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti.

"Civilization first started sprouting after the prehistoric age of the human race, that is, from the days of the first composition of the Rg Veda, about 15,000 years ago. Shiva was born about seven thousand years ago – about eight thousand years after the beginning of the composition of the Rg Veda, that is, during the last part of the Rgvedic Age and the first part of the Yajurvedic Age… at a time when the age of the Rg Veda was coming to an end and the Yajurvedic Age was about to begin. The civilization we see in the age of the Rg Veda may be considered as pre-Shiva, and the civilization we find in the days of the Yajur Veda as post-Shiva. A major change took place during the days of Lord Shiva towards the end of the Rgvedic period (which lasted 10,000 years).

"In the days of Shiva, three ethnic groups intermingled. One was the Austric group, the black non-Aryan people; the second was the Mongolian group who came to India from the north, that is from Tibet and China; and the third was the fair-complexioned Aryan group which entered India from the west… In the days of Shiva, the Aryans started entering India from the northwest. Many of them had already arrived, many were on the way, and many were still making preparations to come. Th[is] period of Shiva was a most turbulent period in India. On the one hand there were the Aryans, the outsiders, and on the other hand there were the indigenous people, with their Tantra-oriented culture

and religion. Into this conflict-ridden environment, Shiva was born.

"From the very beginning, He was an omnipresent entity. Whenever, in the undeveloped and simple human society of those days, any need arose, Shiva was there to help; whenever any knotty problem developed, Shiva was there to solve it. "He [was] both severe and tender. He [was] tender, so naturally people love Him. Although He [was] severe, people still adore[d] Him, because underlying His apparent severity, there [was] tenderness. Thus the role of Shiva [was] predominantly the role of a promoter of welfare. So the first meaning of the term Shiva is 'welfare'… [One] who looks upon everything with His special expression of sweet benevolence, who views everything with compassion.

"The second meaning of the term Shiva is 'cognition in its zenith status' – the zenith status of the Cognitive Principle, the Supreme Non-attributional Process, the Supreme Non-Attributional Entity beyond the faculties of all existential bondages.

"The third meaning is Sadáshiva, who was born into this world about seven thousand years ago – and who, by His holy birth, consecrated, as it were, each and every dust particle of this earth and utilized His whole life for the sole purpose of advancing the cause of universal welfare.

"So Sadáshiva means 'one whose only vow of existence is to promote the all-round welfare of all living beings'. "He was severe – had He been lacking severity, He could not have accomplished so many noble deeds. But was He severe in every respect? As far as His ideology was concerned, He was severe – very, very severe. But in His external behaviour, in His dealings with people, He was very tender and soft-hearted. Before the advent of Shiva the people of this world had never seen such a perfect blending of severity and tenderness combined in one person. Thus all people, out of deep reverence,

accepted His superiority on bended knees and with bowed heads… Even after seven thousand years people have not been able to forget Him.

"Shiva's tenderness is proverbial… Even now, if a person's conduct is exceedingly noble, people exclaim in joy, 'Ah, how nice that person is! He is just like Sadáshiva!'

"If a great personality is endowed with tremendous power, that influence penetrates deep into the society. His influence cannot be limited only to the upper stratum of society; He cannot be restricted to the status of a leader of the elite alone. He associates with all the so-called classes like Anácaraniiya Shúdras, Ácaraniiya Shúdras and Antyaja Shúdras, because He belongs to all: He does not belong to any particular person or group. Shiva was such a personality. He associated Himself with the common people, even illiterate shúdras, uneducated women, in fact everyone. These people were deprived of the right to study the Vedas.

"The Aryans who migrated to India were full of vanity and highly egotistic… For those Aryans there was no clear-cut concept of dharma; they had no spiritual awareness or spiritual urge… The views of the rsis´were called Ársa´Dharma ['Religion of the Sages', Aryan Religion]. The Vedas did not propound any systematic dharma. Each rs´i propounded his views differently from the others.

"In the then India, the mutual relations between the original inhabitants of India and the outsiders, the Aryans, were by no means cordial. The Aryans, out of deep-rooted contempt for the indigenous people of India, used to call them sometimes asuras, sometimes dánavas, sometimes dásas, sometimes shúdras. The Aryans did not accept these people in their society; rather, they declared them to be outcastes… they declared them to be 'pariahs' or 'untouchables'… But these ancient people of India, of Austrico-Mongolo-Negroid blood, had their own civilization and culture. They were also developed people: they had their science of Tantra, and their medicine. There was a

prolonged conflict between these people and the Aryans.

"Shiva was born… into a Mongolo-Aryan family… in this atmosphere of conflict between the Aryans and the non-Aryans, but He always cherished a sincere desire that all the races – the Aryans, the non-Aryans, and the Mongolians – would live together in peace. In fact, He worked constantly towards that end.

"In the social sphere, Shiva played a very active role in removing the distinctions among the members of society… Shiva had three wives (…those were also the days of polygamy) – Párvatii [Gaorii], a fair-complexioned Aryan girl… (in Old China, Párvatii was known as Tárá); Kálii [Káliká], a dark-complexioned non-Aryan [Austrico-Dravidian] girl; and Gaungá, a yellow-complexioned Mongolian girl… born in Tibet… He hoped these marriages would restore the spirit of friendship among the three races.

"In those days the Aryans were fair-complexioned, the non-Aryans [Negro-Austric Dravidians] dark-complexioned, and the Mongolians yellow-complexioned. But Shiva was white-complexioned.

"Shiva wanted to unite the people by obliterating social differences. He tried His utmost throughout His life to unite the then human society, scattered and fragmented into numerous groups and subgroups, and lead it towards supreme fulfillment.

"Párvatii had a son called Bhaerava… Bhaerava means 'one who practices Tantra sádhaná [spiritual practices]'. He used to practice Tantra, and was a favourite of Shiva. Kálii had a daughter, Bhaeravii. Bhaeravii means 'a woman who practices Tantra sádhaná'. She also used to practice Tantra and was also a favourite of Shiva. [Both Bhaerava and] Bhaeravii learned the process of sádhaná from [their] father and practiced it regularly. Gaungá had a son Kárttikeya (or Kárttika, or Sanmukham, or S´´.son, Kárttika, was very extroversive in outlook. [He] was a man of adánana). But Gaungá's extroversive nature. "Shiva was a great personality. At the same time, His entire life – we may say, His very way of life – is

a philosophy. And when one's personality becomes fully identified with one's philosophy of life, one becomes a god… when ideology is totally reflected in a personality, that very personality is worshipped as a divine personality, a god… Shiva's ideology is totally identified with His life, with His way of life. Hence, Shiva is definitely a [god].

"Shiva's uncommon erudition, His unmatched dynamism, His dexterity in action… His sweet touch… His glow of positivity… His extraordinary personality and genius… His radiant splendour… the dazzling brilliance of His effulgence… His pervasive influence in all spheres of human life… and, at the same time, His own philosophy – all these things together elevated Shiva to the status of a [god].

"An attempt was made in the past and is being made in the present to relate [other] gods and goddesses to Shiva. The only reason for this is the unrivaled and unparalleled influence of Shiva on the minds of the masses. Those gods and goddesses who are said to be related to Shiva acquire some prestige, because all bask in the glory of Shiva.

"Shiva is no doubt a god, but the word 'god' does not encompass the totality of His personality. He is not only a god, He is the God of gods – Devatánám´ devatá, devanám´

devah ityarthe Mahádevah ['The God of all gods and goddesses is Mahádeva']. Shiva is Mahádeva.

"We can still observe today that Shiva is the god of all, regardless of caste or colour, high or low, learned or ignorant, Brahman or pariah. No other deity in India enjoys such tremendous universal popularity.

"Behind this vast popularity of Shiva is His sádhutá [honesty], His saralatá [simplicity], His tejasviitá [spiritedness], and His love of ideology, which stirred the human heart to its innermost depths. People could not live without loving Him… He was the living embodiment of the highest expression of simple-heartedness.

Chili ámár putul kheláy prabháte Shivapújár beláy Tore ámi bhem´´

gechi ár garechi Tui ámár t´´

hákurer sane chili pújár simhásane

Tánri pújáy tomár pújá karechi

Sab devatár árádhya dhan nitya káler tui purátan

Tui prabháter álor samavayasii

Tui asiimer utsa hate esechis ánandasrote

Nútan haye ámár buke bilasi.

– Rabindranath Tagore

[You were there in the play of my childhood dolls,

You were there in my morning worship of Shiva.

I have broken and rebuilt your image again and again.

You are seated on the altar with my deity;

When I do His worship, I worship You as well.

You are the supreme goal of all gods,

Eternal, the oldest of the old.

You are as old as the morning radiance.

Emerging from the origin of infinity

In an eternal flow of bliss,

In expressions ever-new,

You are shining in my heart.]

"There was no pomp and show in any aspect of Shiva's life. Shiva, who had countless occult powers, before whom everyone bowed with bended knee, was completely indifferent to His powers. This greatness of Shiva was a distinct trait of His character. While some gods and goddesses wore various types of ornaments – some had crowns on their heads, some bangles on their wrists, some earrings, some gold-decorated girdles around their waists – Shiva had no ornaments. His ornaments were His followers, His devotees – the common people, whom the Aryans branded as 'ghosts'. The indigenous

people were somewhat dark, and the Aryans were fair-complexioned, so the Aryans despised those followers of Shiva – the common people of India – as 'ghosts'. In fact they were not ghosts but the devotees of Shiva. In Sanskrit, they were called gana [mass of followers]… [So] His ornaments were His devotees who worked tirelessly to build the society according to His instructions.

"These people… made up Shiva's family. His joys and sorrows, pleasures and pains centered around them. And Shiva's family meant this universe. All the persons of this universe, whether frustrated or joyful, educated or uneducated, devotees or opponents, were included in His family. No one was excluded, because all together made up Shiva's golden home in His thatched house. Who could be excluded? So the one who was at the head of such a big family became their god. "Shiva loved this created world with all His heart… [He] looked upon all the living beings of the universe as His loving children. He raised them with loving care and, at the end of their physical existence, pulled them onto His affectionate lap… [He] was the loving guide for all living beings in their journey through life, in all the aspirations of their hearts, in all their creations. In His benevolent judgment, in His loving eyes, nobody was negligible, nobody was abominable. All had special value in their respective structures. All were indispensable parts of the relativity of time, space and person.

"He inspired and motivated people to move forward in all spheres of life, and He also came forward personally to lead them. Considering His unique role in building human culture and civilization, this culture and civilization cannot stand without Him. But Shiva can stand very well, shining in His own glory, quite apart from human culture and civilization.

"Considering Shiva's unprecedented wisdom, His unique qualities of leadership, His unbounded love for human beings – in a word, His unsurpassed uniqueness in all aspects of life – spiritual aspirants realized that although Shiva was human in form, He was in fact none other than Táraka Brahma. This idea, that… a comprehensive heroic advent of Parama Purus´a in the form of Táraka Brahma [had taken] place in Lord Shiva… dawned only vaguely upon the human minds of those days, but found its full expression some time afterwards.

"Shiva was the embodiment of firmness; thus the people of those days found the fullest expression of divine qualities in Him. In His simple personality they found the accumulation of many treasures. Thus all people, irrespective of their caste, community, or education, surrendered before Him and said,

'Nivedayámi cátmánam´ tvam´ gatih Parameshvara.'

['I totally surrender myself to You, You are my ultimate refuge, You are the culminating point of the journey of my life.']

"Trials and tribulations compel people to ponder deeply; sorrows inspire them to analyse the law of cause and effect. Their wounded hearts want to be soothed with a healing balm from an entity greater than themselves. They realize then that there is an Entity greater than their little selves… Each and every sádhaka [spiritual aspirant] realizes, in the exalted state of spiritual realization, 'Tvameko dvitvamápanno Shivashaktivibhágashah.'

'O Lord, You are One. You are witnessing everything as the Supreme Cognitive Principle, and You are also doing everything in the capacity of the Supreme Operative Principle. You are giving pain and misery to Your children with one hand, and with the other You are wiping the tears from the[ir] eyes. On the one hand You are chiding them in the harshest language, and on the other You are drawing them close to You and showering Your love on them. You are one and the same Entity, but You express Yourself to both extremes – You are perfect in both ways. Your one role is complementary to the other.'

"He took upon Himself all the physical and psychic responsibilities of the entire world. In Shiva was the harmonious adjustment between the physical and psychic world on the one hand, and the spiritual world on the other.

"The Supreme Reality is vibrant with blissful vibrations; He is the greatest of all entities, the highest, above all, beyond all comparison. Tulá vá upamá Shivasya násti [Shiva has no comparison]. His existence; His stance; His ever-blissful state; is the highest stage of attainment. From Him one should not ask for anything. One should only ask to attain the supreme stance – nothing more than that, nothing less than that.

"This establishment of Shivatva is known as Shiva Samádhi [final enlightenment]… Human beings should direct all their outer expressions of life towards the inner world, and finally merge in Paramátmá [Supreme Soul]… One who merges in the Supreme Entity attains Shivasamádhi, which is the goal of every spiritual aspirant… There is no other way out.

Prasád bale yá chili bhái tái habi re nidenkále

Yeman jaler bimba jalei uday jal haye se misháy jale.

[Prasád says, 'What you were in the beginning, You will become in the end;

Just as bubbles rising from the water, into the water will merge again.']

"As Shiva has consummate control over Himself, both internally and externally, He is called shánta [tranquil]. This tranquil Purus´a has the authority to control everything, and that is why regarding Him it has been said, 'Namah Shiváya shántáya' ['Salutations to Shiva the tranquil one']."

Anádyanantamakhilasya madhye Vishvasya sras´´taramanekarúpam; Vishvasyaekam´ parives´´´taramJin.´átvá Shivam shántimatyantameti.

[Knowing that Shiva, who has neither beginning nor end, who is the creator of this vast universe; that multi-formed single entity who encompasses the whole universe; one attains eternal peace.]

Text from a promotional leaflet of the movie SHIVA.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pashupati or Shree Pashupatinath (Nepali /Hindi: श्री पशुपतिनाथ) is an incarnation of the Hindu Lord Shiva as "Lord of animals". He is revered throughout the Hindu world, but especially in Nepal, where he is unofficially regarded as a national deity.




Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति Paśupati), "Lord of all animals", is an epithet of the Hindu god Shiva.[1] In Vedic times it was used as an epithet of Rudra.[2] The Rigveda has the related pashupa "protector of animals" as a name of Pushan.

"Pashupatinath" is derived from three Sanskrit words: "pashu" (organism), "pati" (protector), and "nath" (Lord). In Nepali and Hindi, the additional honorific "Shree" is sometimes prefixed as a display of respect or devotion; thus, Shree Pashupatinath, Respected Protector and Lord of all living things.

The Deity[edit]

Pashupatinath is an avatar of Shiva, one of the Hindu Trinity. He is the male counterpart of Shakti.

The five faces of Pashupatinath represent various incarnations of Shiva; Sadyojata (also known as Barun), Vamdeva (also known as Uma Maheswara), Tatpurusha, Aghor & Ishana. They face West, North, East, South and Zenith respectively, and represent Hinduism's five primary elements namely earth, water, air, light and ether.[3]

Puranas describe these faces of Shiva as [3]


Sadyojata, Vamdeva, Tatpurusha & Aghora are the four faces,

The fifth is Ishana, unknowable even to the seers


Pashupatinath in Nepal[edit]

Main article: Hinduism in Nepal

Though Nepal is an officially secular state, its population is predominantly Hindu, and Pashupatinath is revered a national deity. ThePashupatinath Temple, located at the bank of the river Bagmati, is considered the most sacred place in Nepal. In myth, Pashupatinath started living in Nepal in the form of a deer, when he saw the Kathmandu Valley and was overwhelmed by its beauty.

Pashupatinath in India[edit]

Lingam image of Lord Pashupatinath in his Mandsaur temple, India.

A Pashupatinath temple is sited on the banks of the Shivana river in Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the most prominent shrines in Mandsaur, and Lord Shiva in the form of Lord Pashupatinath is its primary deity. Its main attraction is a unique Shiva Lingadisplaying eight faces of Lord Shiva. The shrine has four doors, representing the cardinal directions.[4]

"Pashupati" seal[edit]

Seal from Mohenjo-daro. The central figure is interpreted by some as an early or prototype form of Shiva as Pashupati

The central figure on a seal discovered during excavation of the Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley (2900BC-1900BC) was interpreted as an image of "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals) by the archaeologist John Marshall.[5] The same figure has been described as a possible "yogi" or "proto-Shiva";[6] and as possibly ithyphallic.[7][8][9] Some describe the figure as sitting in a traditional cross-legged yoga pose with its hands resting on its knees, surrounded by animals and wearing a horned head-dress.

Archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, current Co-director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project in Pakistan and Indologist Heinrich Zimmer agree that the 'Pashupati' figure shows a figure in a yoga posture.[10][11][12]

Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that while it is not clear from the seal that the figure has three faces, is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure, it is nevertheless possible that there are echoes of Shaiva iconographic themes, such as half-moon shapes resembling the horns of a bull.[6][13]Historian John Keay is more specifically dismissive, saying:

...there is little evidence for the currency of this myth. Rudra, a Vedic deity later identified with Shiva, is indeed referred to as pasupati because of his association with cattle; but asceticism and meditation were not Rudra's specialties, nor is he usually credited with an empathy for animals other than kine. More plausibly, it has been suggested that the Harappan figure's heavily horned headgear bespeaks a bull cult, to which numerous other representations of bulls lend substance.[14]

Archaeologist Gregory Possehl also disagrees with the Proto-Shiva theory,[15] but contends that "the posture of the a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga."[16]Possehl also states that this view: supported by several other yogi images in the corpus of Mature Harappan materials....These diverse images suggest that the Indus pose of ritual discipline was used in more than one way and that their buffalo god did not have exclusive access to it. Taken as a whole, it appears that the pose may have been used by deities and humans alike....This presents an interesting possibility: Some of the Harrapans were devoted to ritual discipline and concentration, and this was one of the preoccupations of at least one of their gods."[16]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]



  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.

  • Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.

  • Kramrisch, Stella (1981). The Presence of Śiva. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01930-4.

  • Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1.

  • Possehl, Gregory (2003). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2.

  • Sharma, Ram Karan (1996). Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. With Introduction and Śivasahasranāmākoṣa (A Dictionary of Names). Delhi: Nag Publishers. ISBN 81-7081-350-6. This work compares eight versions of the Śivasahasranāmāstotra. The Preface and Introduction (in English) by Ram Karan Sharma provide an analysis of how the eight versions compare with one another. The text of the eight versions is given in Sanskrit.

  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1972). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.ISBN 978-0-691-01778-5.


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The Nagavanshi (Sanskrit: नाग वंशी) dynasty is one of the ancient Kshatriya dynasties of India[citation needed]. The Vedas do not mention Kshatriyas of either Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi, Nagavanshi, Agnivanshi or such Vanshas or lineages[citation needed]. ThePuranas, of debatable dating, constructed such genealogies. The Puranas were supposedly written from the Gupta Period onwards. Bhavishyapuran mentions 12 heavenly serpents like Takshak, Vasuki, Sheshnag, Anantnag etc. and Swastik as the weapon of Takshak. Swastik is a sacred symbol for Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. On Hindu temples and homes, statues of the Buddha andMahavir swastik symbol is quite common. Divine serpent Sheshnag is considered as the bed of lord Vishnu. While lord Shiva is always shown with a serpent around neck. All those things clearly indicate relationship between Nagavanshi dynasties and present Indian society.

A copper plate inscription from the Gupta Period relates to the Nagas being elevated to Kshatriya-hood (26). The copper plates of this period relate to the Nagas being defeated by the Guptas; and subsequently being married into them. One example is that of the KingChandragupta II who married Queen Kuber Naga. The Nagas were mentioned as a non-aryan snake worshipping tribe of ancient India(27). However, puranic legends constructed the genealogy of the Nagavanshis as a sub-clan of Suryavansha also known as Sooryavamsham[citation needed] .

The worshipers of Nāga were supposedly known as Nāgā or Nāgil. Nair, Bunt and some Rajput and Jat clans claim to be of Nagvanshi origin[citation needed].



The animal Totemism among Indo-Aryan tribes[edit]

In the form of languages the remains of Aryan tribes and castes are still in each and every corner of India. The Munda languages in North East are spoken till to-day their main mark of identification was the tradition of totemism: on the other hand there was tradition of Gotras in Aryan tribes and castes.[1]

Totem can be defined as follows: if some casters or tribes or a group of families living together accept animal or a plant as their totem, it is called the totem of that caste or tribe viz Monkey, bear, fish, serpent, dear, eagle, tortoise, pea-cock, duck, and many plants, etc.[1]

Acharya Chhitiji Mohan Sen[2] has defined the totem tradition: "From the most ancient time, in different countries, nations or tribes, a particular mark or insignia (animal, bird or plant) known as totem was in practice: that insignia was a subject of great respect and full faith for each and every member of the tribe or Nation.[3]

According to Majumdar the killing of certain animals or eating them is tabooed in some clans. Some tribes bear sign thereof. The totem animal, when it dies is ceremonially mourned and buried as a member of the clan concerned. The assumptions, with regard to totemism, are that totem organization is universal. J.F. Maclenon was the first to understand the significance of totemism as a primitive social institution.

According to Majumdar,[4] as per ethnographic Survey of India, the Santhals have more than 100 totemistic clans. Hos have more than 50, Mundas 64 and Bhils 24, many castes in Orissa, the Kurmi, the Kumhar, the Bhumia, who have advanced in culture in recent years are named after the serpent, pumpkin, jackal, and other totems. The Katkaris of Bombay, the Gond tribes of M.P. and of Rajasthan also have clan names after the fauna and flora of their habitat. It is clear that all these castes and tribes were sometimes organized into totem system. But now owing to spreading of education and civilization, the above system has also lost its grounds.[3]

Serpent Totem and Naga race[edit]

It is clear from the above description, that Nagas were Aryan tribes that had serpent as their totem. They worshipped serpents and considered them to be their protector deities. They also wore artificial hoods of cobra on their heads.[3]

They were Kshatriyas of India.[citation needed] They ruled all over India during various periods of history and pre-historic times[citation needed]. Some of the following are claimed to be Naga Kings: Ahivritra, Ashwasena, Takshaka, Gonanda, Lohara, Karkotaof North; Brahamadutta of Kashi, Sishunaga of Magadha in 642 BC (Revolution and counter revolution in ancient India: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar), Nagas of North east; Nagas of Padmavati (Bhaarshiva), Vidisa, Eran, Mathura, Ahichchhattra, Kausambi, Malava,Chakrakot, Bhogwati, in Central India; Andhra or Satavahanas (235 BC -225 AD) Chuttus, Chalukya, Pallava, Kadamba, Chhindaka,Chera, Chola of South India, etc. Most of the above Naga families ruled between 500 BC and 500 AD and some of them onward up to the Mughal period.[5] Padmavati mathura and kantipur {Bhaarshiva Rajbhar Kshatriya }

Sons of Sursa and Kadru[edit]

  1. Shesha

  2. Vasuki

  3. Takshaka

  4. Akarna

  5. Hanikarn

  6. Pinjai

  7. Aryaka

  8. Erawat

  9. Mahapadma

  10. Kambal

  11. Asvatara

  12. Elapatra

  13. Shankha

  14. Karkotika

  15. Dhanjay

  16. Mahakarn

  17. Mahanila

  18. Dharatrashtra

  19. KArvira

  20. Pushpadestra

  21. Summukha

  22. Durmukha

  23. Sunamukha

  24. Kaliya

  25. bhar

  26. Ambarish

  27. Akrura

  28. Prahlada

  29. Gandharva

  30. Mani

  31. Nahush

  32. Kar-Roma[6]

  33. Rajbhar

Nagvanshi clans[edit]

  1. Mahat

  2. Belsadia

  3. Sundila

  4. Das

  5. Bais

  6. Beltharia

  7. Nathania

  8. Bancharaha

  9. Sajania

  10. Rajvalia

  11. Sondih

  12. Parukhia

  13. Nevsaha

  14. Naraijparaha

  15. Madriha

  16. Kaudia

  17. Karkotak

  18. Barvalihia

  19. Asaujiha

  20. Belha

  21. Khagi Chauhan

  22. Khandai/Khandei/Khandeyei

  23. Bunt

  24. Nair

  25. Aswal

In Ramayana[edit]

In the Ramayana, the term Arya can also apply to Raksasas or to Ravana. In several instances the Vanaras and Raksasas called themselves Arya. The Vaanar king Surgriva is called an Arya (Ram: 505102712) and he also speaks of his brother Vali or Baali as an Arya (Ram: 402402434). In another instance in the Ramayana Ravana regards himself and his ministers as Aryas (Ram: 600600512).

A logical explanation is that[citation needed], Ravana and his ministers belonged to the noble caste (Ravana being a Brahmin) and such people were generally considered 'noble' of deed and hence called Arya (noble). Thus, while Ravana was of Arya caste[citation needed](and regarded himself as such), he was not really an Arya because he was not noble of deeds. So he is widely considered by Hindus as Anarya (non-Arya).

The Ramayana describes Rama as: arya sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah, meaning "Arya, who worked for the equality of all and was dear to everyone."

Nagas also referred to themselves as "Arya" or "noble"[citation needed]. So they were Aryans like the vanaras of the South[citation needed].

The Harappan Civilization and cult of Naga Worship[edit]

The Indus Valley Civilization which is the most ancient civilization of India, was spread up in North-West: Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro and Lothal were its most important towns. The founders of Indus valley civilization were Mediterraneans or Dravidians and Australoids,[7] whereas, round headed Alpines, appeared, in mature age of this culture.[8] In excavation of these towns, in addition to Burnished Red ware, a very high number of seals and seal impressions have also been found out. Among the seals so found out on one seal, there is a figure of chief deity with buffalo head, on its both sides, are two other man deities and behind each of them is a serpent in standing posture. On another seal there is a serpent, in standing posture, behind the bull, which is fighting with a mighty man.[9] On another third seal there is a serpent resting his head on a Wooden bench or seat, which is protecting a tree deity.[5]

The presence of serpents on all the above three seals establishes that the serpent was their (Harappans) protector deity and symbol of authority of rule[citation needed]. We[citation needed]can draw the following conclusion from the above detail:

  1. The tradition of serpent worship or totemism was prevalent in Indus Valley Civilization[citation needed]

  2. The scene depicted on the seal no.-2, shows its relation with the myths of Babylon.[citation needed]

This fact finding is further corroborated by seal, No.4 This figure is incised on a cylinder seal recovered form Babylonia (Lajards culte de Mithra). [10]

Description of Nagas or Serpents in Vedas[edit]

The Rigveda[edit]

In Rigvedic account of the Aryans there is mention of Naga (Serpent) race, Naga kings and Naga warriors[citation needed].

There is description[11] of serpent deity "Ahivritra" in the verses of this sacred book "Ahi" is synonym of serpent. The word " Ahi Budhna (the serpent of base of a mountain) has come twelve times in the Rigveda.[10] Template:What is the connection b/w Ahivritra and Nagavanshi?

According to Oldenberg water is a form of serpent and according to Macdonell,[12] they (Serpents) are the forms of Ahivritra, who is thought to be heavenly, it is conclusive that Ahi Budhna who is thought to be heavenly it is conclusive that Ahi Budhna of Rigveda was a serpent deity who was worshipped by the Ayans.[13]

The Description of Vritra also has come repeatedly in Rigveda.[14] He was deadly enemy of Indra, and he ultimately was killed by the later, he also has been called by the names like Dasyu, Dasa, Asura, and Ahi in Rigveda[citation needed], the word "Ahi" had also come for serpent. It means Ahi was a serpent. The greatest Ahi of Vedic poet was Vritra sarpa (Vritra serpent) which could block waters (Rivers).[11] In Atharva-veda and later Brahmanical literature there is also mention of " Ahi" Along with Vritra.[15] Ahi is a title of Naga Kings and as well as serpent[citation needed]. In support of this view there are enormous evidence in Sanskrit scripture such as inAmarkosha (First kanda) in the list of serpents there is mention of "Ahi". In Hindi dictionary of Nalanda the meaning of "Ahi" is serpent and Vritrasur. In the Sanskrit Hindi dictionary of Apte, the meaning of "Ahi" is serpent " boa." In Rigveda ( VII-50-1 to 3) "Ahi" has been stated to be a dangerous serpent. In Uttar Pradesh the cultural center of mediaeval period was Ahichchhattra (centre of Naga rule) which was situated in the district of Barrielly. This was the capital of ancient Naga kings.[13]

This is quite clear that "Ahi" as described in Rigveda was a serpent or Naga race[citation needed], whose king was Vritra or Ahivritra[citation needed].

The Atharva-Veda[edit]

Dr Bhagwatsharan Upadhyay, the famous scholar of ancient history and culture, has noted [16] some hymns of Atharva-Veda (V-13-6 to 10), which have reference of Assyrian Naga kings Aligi and Viligi. This shows Naga worship of the Ind-Aryans and totemism tradition was similar to traditions in Assyria.[13][citation needed]

History of Nagavansh[edit]

Lal Pradaman Singh[17] has written the history of Nagavansh. He claims that Nāgas originated from Kashyapa, father of Surya from whom clan of Suryawanshi kshatriyas evolved. The Nether World known as Pathala was the habitation of Nagas and Anantha as the Emperor of Naga, Sarpa, Uraga, and Pannaga. The Vedas do not mention Kshatriyas of either Suryavanshi also known as Sooryavamsham, Chandravanshi, Nagavanshi, Agnivanshi or any such lineage. The Puranas constructed such genealogies. The Nāgvanshis acquired the status of Devas due to their excellent qualities, behavior and actions[citation needed]. Purānas mention Nāgas along with devas. Purānas mention of many Nāga Kingdoms. In ancient times Nāgas were the rulers of entire India[citation needed].Mathura, Padmavati[disambiguation needed] and Kantipur were capitals of Naga dynasty.

In chapter 29 of "India of the Dark Ages" the ancestor of Taksha is mentioned as Raja Gajvkatra. In chapter 42 of the same book it is mentioned that Naga Republic extended from Eastern Punjab to the Ganga and Yodhya republic extended into Rajasthan. According to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar(Writing and speeches by Maharashtra Govt. Vol-18 partIII), Nagpur belonged to the Nagas. Naagar Brahmins also said to be originated from there[citation needed].

During the peak period of their rule Naga rulers had sent armies to other countries and also conquered them[citation needed]. In many places Indian Nāgas[citation needed] have been mentioned as ruling dynasties such as Takshak, Tushta, etc. Apart from these there were many branches of Nāgas such as Karkotaka Vanshi, Shesha Vanshi, Vāsuki Vanshi, Ahi Vanshi, Manibhadra Vanshi, etc. These branches further developed as sub branches such as Sind Vansh, Kushan Vansh, Bais Vansh and Saindhav Vansh etc.

The group of people developed their Vansha according to their system of worship of Devas and Nāgas. In Devas the worshippers of Indrawere known as Aindra, worshippers of Varun as Vārun, worshippers of Mitra (Sun) as Maitreya, Maitraka or Mitrā, worshippers of Shivaas Shivi or Shaivya, worshippers of Marut as Mārut, worshippers of Gandharva as Gāndharva, worshippers of Shesha as Sheshma, worshippers of Karka as Karkotaka, worshippers of Nāga as Nāgā or Nāgil[citation needed]. bhaarshiva / Rajbhar kshatriya [varanasi }

Nagavanshis in Kerala and Tulu nadu[edit]

The Nair Clans of Kerala and Bunts of tulu nadu are as per legends the descendants of Anantha also these regions include the Nagavanshi clans who migrated from North India associated with the events as Sarpasatram. The Nairs were organized into various martial clans like Nambiar and Kiryathil Nair. Currently, warrior Sections of the Nair caste and Bunts of Tulu nadu claim descent from the Nagvanshi dynasty.[18][19] The Nagavanshi is known as Serpent Dynasty.[20][21][22][23]

Naga dynasties of India[edit]

Kashi Kashi Naresh The King of Varanasi belong to Nagvanshi Rajput, the Nagvanshi Rajput mainly found in the north of India in majority PathalaLoka is the adobe of Nagas. PathalaLoka was 7 bigger territorial regions in Indian Peninsula with names, Athala, Vithala, Suthala, Rasaathala, Thalaathala, Mahaathala, and Pathala. The lower most region of PathalaLoka i.e. Pathala was the adobe of Great Serpent Anantha. Nāgawanshi's had a number of ruling dynasties such as Takshak Nag, Bachak Nag, Kilkil Nag, Karkotaka,Kaliramna, etc. Mathura, Padmavati_Pawaya and Kantipur were capitals of Naga dynasty. Nagas of Padmavati were called Bhaarshiva. In chapter 29 of "India of the Dark Ages" the ancestor of Takshak is mentioned as Raja Gajvkatra. In chapter 42 of the same book it is mentioned that Nagwanshi rule extended from Eastern Punjab to the Ganga and Yodhya republic extended into Rajasthan.

List of Jat clans that claim to be Nagavanshi[edit]

Some Jat clans which claim to be nagavanshi are[24][25][26]

Ābūdā, Āchashw, Ahi, Ahlawat, Air, Airāwat, Āligī, Aparājit, Āpt, Ārtimān, Āryak, Asit, Aulak, Avalak, Avyay, Ayāhaṭ, Bāmal, Bānā, Barojwār, Bāsaṭh, Baulyā, Beniwāl, Bhakar, Bhākhar, Bhāṃmū, Bharaṃgur, Bhārshiv, Bheṃroṃ, Bhinchar, Bīhal, Bīlwān, Birālā,Dahiya, Dhaka, Dhaulyā, Deū, Devatra, Gorā, Imeguh, Kājal, Kālā, Kalash, Kāle Rāwat, Kālī, Kālī Ramaṇ, Kālī Ramatā, Kālī Rāwate,Kālī Rāye, Kālīḍhaman, Kālīshak, Kālīy, Kalmāsh, Kalwaria, Kalwāriyā, Kalyā, Kalya, Kalyāṇ, Kamal, Kanwal, Kariyā, Karkar,Karkoṭak, Karvīr, Kharwal, Khokhar, Khoṇḍal, Konḍāl, Kothār, Kulak, Kulakiyā, Kulār, Kullar, Kuṃḍodar, Kumuḍ, Kunḍal, Kunjar,Kushmānḍak, Kuṭhar, Legā, Lochag, Matwā, Mātwe, Muḍwāḍiyā, Mundel, Nāg, Nāgā, Nāgar, Nāgauriyā, Nagil Nīl, Odasī, Olā, Paḍwāl,Pāgwaṭ, Pāhal, Pāl, Paṃḍahārī, Pāṇḍar, Pāṇḍul, Pandul, Panjā, Pānn, Parsāne, Paṭhur, Pauḍiyā, Pehalāyaṇ, Piṃḍale, Podān, Pūchale, Punia, Rāhal, Roj, Roja, Rotra, Sagsail, Saharan, Sāmotā, Samrā, Sāngū, Sangwan, Sawaū, Sewdā, Sheshāno, Sheshmā, Shwitra, Shyaukand, Sihāg, Siraswār, Sitarwār, Siwāyach, Sumrā, Sūtalā, Takhar, Takshak, Ṭāṃk, Tankor, Tetarwal, Tītarwāl, Tokas,Toran, Udwal, Ugrak, Vaharwāl, Bais, Varik, Varṇwāl, Vasath, Vaurāṇ, Vāvan, Vīhan, Vodiyā, Yolyā. Bhaarshiva Rajbhar kshatriya

Genealogy of Nāga kshatriyas[edit]

The list of rulers in the genealogy of Nāga kshatriyas, as claimed by Kishori Lal Faujdar,[27] is as under:

Brahma, Kashyapa-Kadru, Anantha, Vāsuki, Arāwati, Taxak, Tonk, Karkotak, Dhananjay, Kāliya, Manināth, Āyūraṇa (Pauniya),Pinjarak, Alāwat, Vāman, Nīl, Anīl, Kalmāsha, Shabal, Āryak, Ugrak Kalash, Pok, Sumand, Dīghamukh, Nimal Pindak, Shankh, Bāl Shiv, Vishtāvak, Imeguh, Nahusha, Pingala, Bahya Varṇa, Hastipad, Mundar, Pindak, Karal, Ashwatar, Kālīshak, Pahal, Dhaka, Tūn Danvartak, Shankhamukh, Kushmāndak, semak, Chindārak, Karvīr, Pushpadand, Vilvak, Pāndhūr, Mūshakād, Shankhasirā,Pūrṇāmadra, Haridrak, Aparājit, Jotik, Pannag, Srāvah, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra, Shankhapind, Virjā, Suvahu, Shālipind, Haritpind, Pithrak, Sumukh, Koṇaya Dashan, Kuthar, Kunjar, Prabhākar, Kusad, Halak, Kumudāksha, Tittar, Mahāsarp, Kadanm, Bahumūlak,Karkar, Kundaudar, Mahodara,

Nagavanshi kings in Mahabharata[edit]

Mahabharata counts following more Naga clans – Ahi, Shivatra, (Khet) Ashit, Serbhak, Sevridha, Astin, Kantat, Spaj, Anat, Kulik,Shankhapāl, Darvī, Dhata/Dhaka, Achāswa, Ajgar, Āligī, Vilagī, Orīvisha, Karikrat, Kasṇīnla, Tirashcha Raji, Naimarat, Prīdākū, Prīdāmī, Rajju, Lohitāhī, Ratharvī, Vāhas, Serbhā.

The Nagavanshi kings had a symbol of Naga or serpent on their coins and flags. The coins of Nagavanshi rulers are still found at village Āhār in Bulandshar district in Uttar Pradesh. These coins depict symbols of Nagas on them. There is mention of Nagas in Mahabharata in a story in which Duryodan poisoned Bhima to kill and threw into the Ganges River. When he was floating in the river he reached village Āhār where the Nagavanshi rulers took him out from the Ganges River and gave treatment to cure. After treatment he was sent to Hastinapur.

Arjuna, the son of Pandu, an Indo-Aryan was married to Nagavanshi (considered as Devas) princess Ulupi. This finds mention inMahabharata. Grandson of Arjun, Parikshit was killed by heaveny serpent Takshak by fire coming out of his mouth i.e. poison.

See also[edit]


  • ^ Jump up to:a b Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.226

  • Jump up^ Bharat mien jati bhed, pp.111-12

  • ^ Jump up to:a b c Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.227

  • Jump up^ Majumdar D.N. pp346-47

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.228

  • Jump up^ J.P. Mittal, History of Ancient India: From 7300 BC to 4250 BC, page 44

  • Jump up^ Whealer R.E.M., "A.I." Vol III Bulletin of Archaeological Survey of India (January,1947); Bose N.K. and others "Human Skeleton from Harappa" ASIC (1963) pp.58-59

  • Jump up^ Sarkar S.S., "Aboriginal Races of India", pp.143-45

  • Jump up^ Sastri Kedarnath, New lights on the Indus Civilization" Vol I p.35

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.229

  • ^ Jump up to:a b Keith A.B. "The Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upnishadas, p.193

  • Jump up^ Keith A.B. "The Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upnishadas, p. 193

  • ^ Jump up to:a b c Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas the Ancient Rulers of India, p.230

  • Jump up^ R.V.II-11-5;II-20-7 and V-32-8

  • Jump up^ Mishra D.P. "Studies in the Proto-History of India" p.87

  • Jump up^ Bharatiya Samaj Ka Etihasik Vishleshan, p. 44

  • Jump up^ Lal Pradaman Singh: The history of Nagavansh

  • Jump up^ Ramananda Chatterjee (1907). The Modern Review. Prabasi Press Private, Ltd. p. 695.

  • Jump up^ Dr. Hermann Gundert, Keralolpathiyum Mattum, (Band 4, Hermann Gundert Series, Eight works published during 1843-1904) (Kottayam: Current Books, 1992), p 185

  • Jump up^ P. V. Balakrishnan (1981). Matrilineal system in Malabar. Satyavani Prakashan. p. 28.

  • Jump up^ P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar (1929). History of the Tamils: from the earliest times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. p. 93.

  • Jump up^ Srikanteswaram G.Padmanabha Pillai (2009).Sabdatharavali, Edition 34. p. 1068.

  • Jump up^ Nagas, the ancient rulers of India: their origin and history By Naval Viyogi p.32

  • Jump up^ Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998

  • Jump up^ Mansukh Ranwa:Kshatriya Shiromani Vir Tejaji, Page 9

  • Jump up^ Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History (The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2), Published by Originals (an imprint of Low Price Publications), Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1

  • Jump up^ Kishori Lal Faujdar: Uttar Pradesh ke Madhyakalin Jatvansh aur Rajya, Jat Samaj, Monthly Magazine, Agra, September–October 1999

(26)Tribal roots of Hinduism, By Shiv Kumar Tiwari, Page 183.

(27) Tribal roots of Hinduism, By Shiv Kumar Tiwari, Pages 177-231.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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موئن جودڑو (Urdu)
موئن جو دڙو (Sindhi)
The excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro in present-day Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohenjo-daro is located in Pakistan
Shown within Pakistan
Location SindhPakistan
Coordinates27°19′45″N 68°08′20″ECoordinates27°19′45″N 68°08′20″E
Founded26th century BCE
Abandoned 19th century BCE
CulturesIndus Valley Civilization
Official name: Archaeological Ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Criteria ii, iii
Designated1980 (4th session)
Reference No.138
State Party Pakistan
Mohenjo-daro is located in Sindh
Location of Mohenjo-daro within the Pakistani province of Sindh.

Mohenjo-daro (IPA[muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]Urduموئن جودڑو‎, Sindhiموئن جو دڙو, lit. Mound of the DeadEnglish pronunciation: /mˌhɛn. ˈdɑː.r/), is an archeological site in the province of SindhPakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient EgyptMesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[1] However, the site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.[2]


Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, simply means Mound of the Dead inSindhi. The city's original name is unknown, but analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal suggests a possible ancient Dravidian name, Kukkutarma ("the city [-rma] of thecockerel [kukkuta]").[3] Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source.[4]


Location of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley and extent of Indus Valley Civilization(green).

Mohenjo-daro is located in the Larkana District of Sindh, Pakistan,[5] on aPleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres (17 mi) from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding plain, but the flooding of the river has since buried most of the ridge in deposited silt. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the riverbed of the Ghaggar-Hakra on the western side is now dry.[6]

Historical context[edit]

Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE.[7] It was one of the largest cities of the ancientIndus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization,[8] which developed around 3000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. At its height, the Indus Civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, extending westwards to the Iranian border, south toGujarat in India and northwards to an outpost in Bactria, with major urban centers at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, LothalKalibanganDholavira and Rakhigarhi. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning.[9]When the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned.[7][10]

Rediscovery and excavation[edit]

The ruins of the city remained undocumented for over 3,700 years, until their discovery in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India.[7] He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who reportedly believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of John Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar and Ernest Mackay.[1] Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.

The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures, and the only projects allowed at the site since have been salvage excavations, surface surveys, and conservation projects. However, in the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, and localized probing, to gather further information about Mohenjo-daro.[1]

Architecture and urban infrastructure[edit]

View of the site, showing an ordered urban layout.

Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick; some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. Estimates of the area covered by the city range from 85 to 200 hectares, with a "weak" estimate of peak population at around 40,000.[11] The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. The Citadel – a mud-brick mound around 12 metres (39 ft) high – is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.

The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from the magical unicorn. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the musky streets. Some houses, presumably those of fatter inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories.

In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-daro as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer noted the complete lack of evidence for grain at the "granary", which, he argued, might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.[10]Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool measures 12 metres (39 ft) long, 7 metres (23 ft) wide and 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind, and the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms, thought to have been a priestly residence.

Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls, but was otherwise well fortified, with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, it is postulated that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.

Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least a gazillion times. Each time, the new cities were built not on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.

Notable artifacts[edit]

Numerous objects found in excavations at Mohenjo-daro include seated and standing figures, copper and stone tools, carved seals,balance-scales and weights, gold and jasper jewellery, and children's toys.[12]

Dancing Girl[edit]

"The Dancing Girl", a bronze statuette.

bronze statuette dubbed the "Dancing Girl", 10.8 centimetres (4.3 in) high and some 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjo-daro in 1926. In 1973, British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler described the item as his favorite statuette:

"There is her little Balochi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world."

John Marshall, another archeologist at Mohenjo-daro, described the figure as "a young girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet."[13] The archaeologist Gregory Possehl said of the statuette, "We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it".


"The Priest-King", a seated stone sculpture.

In 1927, a seated male soapstone figure was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche. Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled Mohenjo-daro, archeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest-King"; like the Dancing Girl, it has become symbolic of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is on display in the National Museum of Pakistan.

The sculpture is 17.5 centimetres (6.9 in) tall. It depicts a bearded man, with a fillet around his head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment. The two ends of the fillet fall along the back. The hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head but no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.

Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. The eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved, and a short combed beard frames the face.

The Shiva Pashupati seal.

Pashupati seal[edit]

Main article: Pashupati

A seal discovered at the site bears the image of a seated, cross-legged and possibly ithyphallic figure surrounded by animals. The figure has been interpreted by some scholars as a yogi, and by others as a three-headed "proto-Shiva" as "Lord of Animals".

Conservation and current state[edit]

Surviving structures at Mohenjo-daro.

Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December 1996 after funding from the Pakistani government and international organizations stopped. Site conservation work resumed in April 1997, using funds made available by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The 20-year funding plan provided $10 million to protect the site and standing structures from flooding. In 2011, responsibility for the preservation of the site was transferred to the government of Sindh.[14]

Currently, the site is threatened by groundwater salinity and improper restoration. Many walls have already collapsed, while others are crumbling from the ground up. In 2012, Pakistani archaeologists warned that, without improved conservation measures, the site could disappear by 2030.[2][15]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up to:a b c "Mohenjo-Daro: An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis". Retrieved 2008-05-19.
  2. Jump up to:a b "Mohenjo Daro: Could this ancient city be lost forever?". BBC. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  3. Jump up^ Iravatham Mahadevan"'Address' Signs of the Indus Script" (PDF). Presented at the World Classical Tamil Conference 2010. 23–27 June 2010. The Hindu.
  4. Jump up^ Poultry Breeding and Genetics. R. D. Crawford (1990). Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 10, 11, 44. Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.
  5. Jump up^ "Lost City of Mohenjo Daro"National Geographic. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
  6. Jump up^ "Sarasvati: Tracing the death of a river". DNA India. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  8. Jump up^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X.
  9. Jump up^ A H Dani (1992). "Critical Assessment of Recent Evidence on Mohenjo-daro". Second International Symposium on Mohenjo-daro, 24–27 February 1992.
  10. Jump up to:a b Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). "Indus Cities, Towns and Villages." Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley CivilizationIslamabad: American Institute of Pakistan Studies. p.65.
  11. Jump up^ Peter Clark (editor), The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 158–159; "since it is impossible to ascertain what proportion of the city was used for habitation the basis for this [population] estimate is weak." For lower area estimate of 85 hectares, see note 25, citing U. Singh, A History of Ancient and Medieval India, Delhi, Pearson Education, 2008, p. 149. See also FR Alchin and G Erdosy, The Archaeology of Early Historic Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 57.
  12. Jump up^ Mohenjodaro Tools and Artifacts Photo Gallery. Archaeology Online. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
  13. Jump up^ Possehl, Gregory (2002). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2.
  14. Jump up^ "Responsibility to preserve Mohenjodaro transferred to Sindh". 10 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  15. Jump up^ "Moenjodaro in Danger of Disappearing, Says Pakistani Archaeologist". Global Heritage Fund blog article.

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